[cc_swift width=”100%” height=”100%”] // closures recap // a closure is a function without a name, which can be passed around like a value. let’s create a simple closure let myClosure = { print(“Hi!”) } // we can create a function which accepts a closure as parameter like so: func thisFunctionAcceptsAClosure(closure: () -> Void) { closure() } // then we call the function thisFunctionAcceptsAClosure { // given that the function accepts a closure as its last parameter, and the closure does not accept parameters itslf nor does it return anything, we can use this syntax called trailing closure syntax. print(“Hi!”) } // closures themselves can accept parameters and return values. This one does both func thisFuncGetsASuperClosure(superClosure: (String) -> String) { superClosure(“Piece of text”) } thisFuncGetsASuperClosure { (text: String) -> String in return “Are we going to \(text)?” } // shorthand parameter names // swift is pretty smart when it comes to understanding closures as parameters. let’s see that in action with thisFuncGetsASuperClosure thisFuncGetsASuperClosure { text in // swift knows the parameter and return types because we specified them earlier return “Are we going again to \(text)?” } // we can go a step further. closure parameters are automatically assigned a shorthand by swift like so: thisFuncGetsASuperClosure { “Are we going to \($0) again and again?” } // we even removed the “return” keyword since there is only one line of code in the closure. it must then be the return value. // multiple parameter closures func funcThatAcceptsClosureWithTwoParameters(action: (String, Int) -> String) { print(“I’m about to print something out from that closure with two parameters.”) print(action(“London”, 12)) } funcThatAcceptsClosureWithTwoParameters { “I am going to \($0) at this speed: \($1).” } // returning a closure from a function func thisFunctionReturnsAClosure() -> (String) -> Void { return { print(“Closure pros: \($0)”) } } let myClosure2 = thisFunctionReturnsAClosure() myClosure2(“Incredible!”) // capturing values // let’s create a function that returns a friendly closure. this time, we will // also put a counter, which will count up every time the closure is run. // the counter is declared in travel() func travel() -> (String) -> Void { var counter = 0 return { print(“\(counter). Hi, \($0).”) counter += 1 } } let travelClosure = travel() travelClosure(“Milan”) travelClosure(“Milan”) travelClosure(“Milan”) travelClosure(“Milan”) // as you can see, the counter goes up even though it’s not stored inside the closure. This is because the closure captured it. [/cc_swift]

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